Gecko Feet Don’t Stick Around

This allows for weak forces between molecules, called van der Waals forces and frictional adhesion, to become strong enough to support a lizard’s weight. The tokay gecko has some 6.5 million setae, which together generate enough force “to hold up two skinny guys or one fat guy,” Gamble says. “If all the setae had full contact with the substrate, [with that amount of adhesion] you could have a Spider-Man suit.” Reconstructing feet Engineers who want to emulate the lizard’s feats will have to construct precisely designed mechanical feet. “People making gecko adhesive have just been concerned with stickiness, like flypaper,” Gamble explains. “But as soon as you want to make something move in the real world, you must know how to make it stick and unstick on different inclines and different materials and at different speeds.” Since hundreds of gecko species have adhesive toepads, it could be tough choosing one to use as a model. “If you don’t know how they’re related, you may do a lot of unnecessary work looking at every species,” Gamble continues. “But if you know how they’re grouped evolutionarily, you can compare representative species from each of the 11 groups that evolved toepads independently. Then you can figure out what characteristics lineages with toepads have in common.” The crested, or eyelash, gecko (Rhacodactylus ciliatus) is native to New Caledonia. Photo: Tony Gamble This way, he says, one can glean best practices for assembling an adhesive toepad, filter out lineages that may be redundant, and ignore traits that may be unique to just one lineage.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.umn.edu/news/features/2012/UR_CONTENT_394753.html

Day Gecko Care – Terrarium Set Up and the Best Supplies

Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.  Gaily clad in brilliant, neon-hued colors, Day Geckos (Phelsuma spp.) are among the most desirable of all lizard pets, so here is a short article about Day Gecko care.  Many are hardy, long-lived, and relatively simple to breed…but only if they are housed in a properly-designed habitat.  Active and alert, these cautious animals fare poorly in bare enclosures, but are ideally suited for life in naturalistic, planted terrariums.  The security provided by dense plantings and well-placed branches will put Day Geckos at ease and allow you to view a wide range of fascinating behaviors.

Setting up the Terrarium

Day Geckos are highly arboreal and must have climbing opportunities.  “High-style” aquariums make fine homes.  A pair or trio of Spotted, Yellow-Throated or other small species can be kept in a 15-20 gallon aquarium.  A 30-55 gallon tank will accommodate the same number of Standing’s, Madagascar or Giant Day Geckos.  Always opt for the largest terrarium possible.

Phelsuma madagascariensis

Photo uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Manuel Werner, Nürtingen, Germany

Day Geckos need spacious enclosures that mimic their natural habitat.  Live plants such as Pothos and Philodendron will provide visual barriers between tank-mates and a sense of security.  Rolled cork bark and hollow bamboo sections make ideal hideaways and perching sites, and should be arranged both horizontally and vertically.

Be sure to establish plenty of basking sites near heat and UVB bulbs, as dominant individuals may exclude others from these important areas.

The terrarium’s screen lid must be tightly secured with clamps.

Substrate

A mix of potting soil, cypress mulch and sphagnum moss is ideal.

Light

Day Geckos will not thrive without a source of UVB light (but some notable exceptions are known; please see article below).  Natural sunlight is best, but be aware that glass and plastic filter out UVB rays, and that fatal overheating can occur very quickly.

Your geckos should be able to bask within 6-12 inches of a high-output UVB florescent bulb; the Zoo Med 10.0  Bulb, which I have used at the Bronx and Staten Island Zoos, has been shown to out-perform other florescent models.  Mercury vapor and halogen bulbs broadcast UVB over greater distances, and emit beneficial UVA radiation as well.  Be sure to provide shaded areas.

A daytime period of 12-14 hours should be established.

Heat

Ambient temperatures of 82-88 F, with a basking spot of 90-95 F, will suit most (please post below for information on individual species).

Incandescent spotlights may be used by day; ceramic heaters or red/black reptile “night bulbs” are useful after dark.

Provide your pets with the largest home possible, so that a thermal gradient (areas of different temperatures) can be established.  Thermal gradients, critical to good health, allow reptiles to regulate their body temperature by moving between hot and cooler areas.  In small or poorly ventilated enclosures, the entire area soon takes on the basking site temperature.

Humidity

Most Day Geckos are rainforest dwellers and do best in humid surroundings.  Their terrarium should be misted at least twice daily. If your home is especially dry, consider using a small reptile fogger to raise the humidity levels in the terrarium (please see photo).t243860

Companions

Males will fight savagely and cannot be housed together. Females are territorial, and must be watched carefully. Pairs, trios (1 male, 2 females) and youngsters may co-exist in large enclosures, but be sure to check dominant individuals do not prevent others from feeding and basking.

Please check out my posts on Twitter and Facebook.  Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable.  I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. 

Thanks, until next time,

Frank Indiviglio

Further Reading

Keeping Day Geckos without a UVB Source

Gecko Overview

Leopard Gecko Care – The Ideal Gecko Terrarium – a Zookeeper’s Thoughts

Hello, Frank Indiviglio here.  Leopard Geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess distinct personalities, accept handling, are easy to breed, do not require UVB radiation and are content with modestly-sized terrariums – surely as close to a “perfect reptile pet” as one can imagine.  However, while some have reached ages of 20+ years, Leopard Geckos will not thrive if their specific needs are not met.  Drawing from my work with this and related species at the Bronx and Staten Island Zoos, today I’ll describe the type of captive habitat these fascinating lizards require, and some useful products that will help you excel in Leopard Gecko care.  I’m also hoping to publish a revised edition of a book I’ve written on Leopard Geckos…I’ll try to include any interesting observations you might post below.

Male leopard gecko

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by MKGeckos

Natural History

Understanding an animal’s natural history is a critical first step in successful captive care and breeding.

The Leopard Gecko is found in southeastern Afghanistan, western India, Pakistan, Iraq, and Iran, where it frequents desert fringes and arid grasslands. Its habitat is characterized by sand, gravel, rocks, tough grasses and low shrubs (please see photo).  In the course of the year, temperatures may range from 41-104 F. Please see the article linked below for further information on Leopard Geckos in the wild.

Setting up the Terrarium

Leopard Geckos will do fine in simple homes, but naturalistic terrariums landscaped with rocks, driftwood and live plants make for stunning displays.  Aloes, Ox Tongue, Snake Plants and other arid-adapted species, all readily available, may be used to decorate Leopard Gecko terrariums.

 Leopard Geckos are not overly-active (by lizard standards) but should be given as much room as possible.  A single adult will get by in a 10-15 gallon aquarium, but a 20 gallon (long style) is preferable.  A 30-55 gallon terrarium will accommodate a pair or trio.

Leopard Geckos are ground-dwelling, but will utilize rocks and stout driftwood.  Rocks and other heavy objects should always be placed on the terrarium’s floor, not on the substrate, so that lizards cannot tunnel below and be crushed.

Several hide boxes or caves should be provided, preferably on both the cooler and warmer sides of the terrarium.  Please see “Humidity” and “Temperature” below for further information. 

As air flow is important for animals that are native to arid habitats, your terrarium should be equipped with a screen top.

Arid Scrb

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Ton Rulkens

Substrate

Sand has long been used as a substrate for adult geckos in zoos and private collections, and I’ve not had any problems with it in either setting.  However, impactions due to swallowed sand are sometimes reported, and most pet keepers prefer to err on the side of caution.  Large gravel and stones, of a size that cannot be swallowed, are a good alternative.  You can mix in some dry grass to simulate a semi-desert environment.  If you do choose to add sand, it is best to provide food in large bowls, or in a separate enclosure, so that ingestion is limited.

Hatchlings are clumsy hunters, and tend to swallow sand.  Newspapers, paper towels or washable cage liners should be used until their skills improve.  Adults may also be kept in this manner if you prefer.

Light

Nocturnal lizards such as Leopard Geckos absorb Vitamin D3 from their diet, and do not need a UVB light source.

Heat

The ambient air temperature should range from 78-88 F.  A ceramic heater or red/black reptile “night bulb” (these will also enable you to observe your gecko after dark) can be used to maintain these temperatures at night.  A below-tank heat mat or bulb should be positioned so that one corner of the tank is warmer (to 88 F) that the rest.

Large enclosures are necessary if a thermal gradient (areas of different temperatures) is to be established.  Thermal gradients, critical to good health, allow lizards to regulate their body temperature by moving from hot to cooler areas.

Head, young male

Uploaded to Wikipedia Commons by Pop77o7

Humidity

Low humidity and a dry substrate should be maintained.  However, shedding problems will be likely if a cave stocked with moist sphagnum moss is not provided.  A dry hiding spot should also be available.

Companions

Leopard Geckos are solitary and best housed alone.  Females and youngsters may co-exist, but dominant individuals may prevent others from feeding.  Males will fight viciously and cannot be kept together.  Pairs may get along in a large terrarium, but close monitoring is the rule.

Feeding

Too many pet Leopard Geckos are fed diets comprised solely of crickets and mealworms, and as a result rarely live as long as they otherwise might.  The overuse of pink mice is another common mistake.  Please see this article  for information on providing a proper diet, and be sure to post any questions below.

Please check out my posts on Twitter  and Facebook.   Each day, I highlight breaking research, conservation news and interesting stories concerning just about every type of animal imaginable.  I look forward to hearing about your interests and experiences as well, and will use them in articles when possible.

Please also post your questions and comments below…I’ll be sure to respond quickly. 

Thanks, until next time,

Frank Indiviglio

 

Further Reading

Leopard Geckos in the Wild

Breeding Leopard Geckos

In John Hopkins Sex Assault Case, School’s Handling In Question | Tampa Bay Times

The 12-year-old girl who withdrew from John Hopkins Middle School after she says she was sexually assaulted in the band room poses for a portrait with her new saxophone in her home.

Vedsegaard-Ross said Brown told her she was “snowballing,” or piling on accusations. “He said, ‘You know at this level, the 11-, 12- or 13-year-olds, you know there’s a lot of horse’ and he stopped himself, and it was dead silent in the room,” Vedsegaard-Ross said. She replied, “You’re saying that my daughter’s sexual assault is horseplay?” Vedsegaard-Ross asked administrators to transfer the boy to another school, but Florio, she said, explained that such requests are rarely approved, even for “much worse” offenses. Brown refused to even try, she said. Later, Brown left the room and Florio went to retrieve the girl’s report card, which had just been released. Vedsegaard-Ross cried. Only the resource officer was left. She said he apologized for his comments at the first meeting. The school district refused to allow Times reporters to interview Florio or Brown.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.tampabay.com/news/education/k12/in-john-hopkins-sex-assault-case-schools-handling-in-question/2215792

Lizard Squad Claims To Take Down Facebook, Instagram (update: No They Didn’t)

Lizard Squad hacks Taylor Swift, offers nudes for Bitcoin | SiliconANGLE

Now, Lizard Squad is claiming to have taken down a large handful of sitesalbeit briefly. Reports suggest that Facebook, Instagram, Tinder, MySapce, AIM and Hipchat at the very least were affected by the alleged attack. All those sites are definitely now back up and running properly, and reports about how long there were down variescertainly less than an hour for Facebook, though. It’s a short, sharp impact but on wide selection of sites. Indeed, if its is the work of Lizard Squad, the ability to take out such a wide range of sites in one go is worrying. We currently have no more details, but will update if we find out more. Update: A Facebook spokesperson has told The Verge that this was “not the result of a third party attack but instead occurred after we introduced a change that affected our configuration systems.” It’s suspected that the Tinder outage may have been triggered by the Facebook outage.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://gizmodo.com/lizard-squad-claims-to-take-down-facebook-instagram-t-1681978666

Lizard Squad Hack Attack is a Warning for Us All Says Lewis University Info Security Expert

The hack occurred Tuesday morning with multiple tweets appearing on Swifts Twitter account; the first encouraged herfans to follow user @Veriuser, with a second tweet urging users to go follow my boy @lizzard; of note both accounts have since been suspended. Swift confirmed the hacking on her Tumblr account, saying that My Twitter got hacked but dont worry, Twitter is deleting the hacker tweets and locking my account until they can figure out how this happened and get me new passwords. In a later post to Tumblr she confirmed that her Instagram account was also hacked. Shortly after the attack, the hackers claimed they had obtained nude photographs of Swift and said they would release the photos once they had received3 Bitcoins in donations. Swift denied having nude photos, and replied: PS any hackers saying they have ‘nudes’? Psssh you’d love that wouldn’t you!
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://siliconangle.com/blog/2015/01/27/lizard-squad-hacks-taylor-swift-offers-nudes-for-bitcoin/

When an internal DNS gets compromised, that mapping between names and numbers gets corrupted, and your site ends up serving the wrong pages to customers. This can be both embarrassing and disruptive. Unfortunately, DNS is one of those mystery boxes that we assume runs like a top at all times. It is very important to include your DNS in your organization’s monitoring and patching regimen, or you risk being the victim of these kinds of attacks.” Wednesday, January 28 is Data Privacy Day, sponsored by the National Cyber Security Alliance.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/628878/?sc=rssn

Winterfest Brings Ice Sculpture, Games To North Bennington – Bennington Banner

Dan Strohl of Bennington carves a sculpture out of ice.

“The Special Olympics puts on this wonderful event to raise money, and Winterfest was built around it.” The event will bring representatives from local organizations to take the chilling challenge and usher in Winterfest. “They jump into the water, and that’s when the North Bennington Winterfest kicks in,” said Perry, who will host the After-Plunge Party at the VAE with a number of events under one roof, including the Norshaft Lions Clubs Chili Fest with more than 20 different kinds of chili, and the Buzz Saw Boys performing acoustic rock live on stage. “We have more vendors than we’ve ever had before this year,” Boudreau said.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.benningtonbanner.com/berkshiresweek/ci_27411380/winterfest-brings-ice-sculpture-games-north-bennington?source=rss_viewed

How did snakes evolve? Fossil discovery holds clues. – CSMonitor.com

But Caldwell says that he is absolutely certain that the discovery is a novel one. Because the fossils are so much older than any other known specimens and because they are characteristically different yet still snakelike Caldwell asserts that there is no uncertainty that these are new taxons. But what makes a snake snakelike? According to Caldwell, its all in the skull. Snake skulls are very distinctive, Caldwell says.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/0127/How-did-snakes-evolve-Fossil-discovery-holds-clues

Bart Jansen Wants To Build A Jet-Propelled Badger Submarine – Business Insider

ostrichcopter ostrich bart jansen

His website explains his mission more eloquently : My work highlights situations that show the skewed balance between what we want to achieve and what we actually achieve, when pursuing that goal. The installations are mostly inventions, new machines. Devices that ful fill certain functions. One condition goes: they must be operational. Like any other invention these machines are about the automation of processes in order to ease the living of mankind.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.businessinsider.com/badger-submarine-bart-jansen-2015-1

How Did Snakes Evolve? Fossil Discovery Holds Clues. – Csmonitor.com

Winterfest brings ice sculpture, games to North Bennington – Bennington Banner

Dan Strohl of Bennington carves a sculpture out of ice.

In the mid-Jurassic, reptiles experienced a boom of adaptive radiation the rapid diversification of organisms into new forms. It occurs when new environments become accessible, thereby presenting new environmental challenges and opportunities to specialize. When the supercontinent Pangea broke up into separate land masses, it allowed the squamates a reptilian order that includes all lizards and snakes to diversify. One of the great cliches in paleontology is, if you find it in the fossil record, it originated before that time, Caldwell says. Weve long pinpointed that period in the Jurassic when skinks, anguimorphs, and geckos popped up. The middle Jurassic appears to be a radiation point for small-bodied lizards, and were finally able to add snakes to that point. The discovery of new species extends the fossil record of snake evolution by 70 million years. In doing so, it may also challenge previous notions about snake evolution. So did the heads evolve after the tails?
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/0127/How-did-snakes-evolve-Fossil-discovery-holds-clues

Pangea Restaurant, Southern Vermont College, the Young Professionals Club, and the Boy Scouts are expected to take part. “Last year, Southern Vermont College did their logo,” said Bennington Chamber of Commerce Winterfest Committee member Beth McLean. “One team did this marble track, where you drop a metal ball in it and it makes its way down to the bottom. That was pretty technical, it was pretty cool. We had someone one year do a Volkswagen Beetle. You never know what you’re going to get.” The competition will start at 7 a.m., with judging at 2 p.m. Also at the depot visitors will find a Girl Scouts booth with games and activities and Dollars For Scholars . Starting at noon, a Winter Carnival at the Village School will bring in a bounce house and a number of other activities for kids, like bowling and an ice fishing game, as well as a bake sale, and a pie and brownie sale (with pie or brownie a la mode) to raise money for the sixth-grade class trip.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.benningtonbanner.com/berkshiresweek/ci_27411380/winterfest-brings-ice-sculpture-games-north-bennington?source=rss_viewed

Salt Lake Puts City, 
Mountain Fun Within Reach | Boston Herald

But what if you could have your powder and city fun, too? No, its not a pipe dream, and get this: Its been right in front of us all along. Salt Lake City, Utah, nestles up to some amazing mountains, and staying in the city is easy, affordable and a melding of city escape and mountain experience. Ive driven through Salt Lake City many times, heading to Park City, Little or Big Cottonwood Canyon via Salt Lake from Boston.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.bostonherald.com/entertainment/travel/2015/01/salt_lake_puts_city_mountain_fun_within_reach

What We Know About Project Spartan: Extensions And Performance, Yes, Windows 7, No | Ars Technica

Even when using Trident, Spartan will omit some legacy capabilities, such as support for Internet Explorer’s third-party toolbars and ActiveX plugins. For these, Internet Explorer will continue to be required, and accordingly, Windows 10 will ship with Internet Explorer 11 for those situations that absolutely require it. While it’s ditching those old extensibility mechanisms, Microsoft confirmed on Twitter that there will be an extension capability of some kind. Microsoft is yet to provide any specific information, though the rumor mill continues to suggest that the system will be compatible with Chrome’s extension system. In a message that’s not altogether surprising but will no doubt cause disappointment, Microsoft has also said that Spartan (and, one assumes, Edge) is a Windows 10-only affair, with no plans for a Windows 7 release. This is to be expected: Windows 7 left mainstream support earlier this month , meaning that it’s only receiving security updates. Significant platform updatessuch as a major overhaul/replacement of Internet Explorerare off the cards.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2015/01/what-we-know-about-project-spartan-extensions-and-performance-yes-windows-7-no/

Lizard Squad Hack Attack Is A Warning For Us All Says Lewis University Info Security Expert

Lizard Squad hacks Taylor Swift, offers nudes for Bitcoin | SiliconANGLE

Ray Klump, professor and director of the Master of Information Security program at Lewis University, analyzed the recent Malaysian Airlines attack on its Domain Name Server. A DNS maps server names to IP addresses, a necessary task because servers are ultimately accessed by number, not by name, he explained. When an internal DNS gets compromised, that mapping between names and numbers gets corrupted, and your site ends up serving the wrong pages to customers. This can be both embarrassing and disruptive. Unfortunately, DNS is one of those mystery boxes that we assume runs like a top at all times. It is very important to include your DNS in your organization’s monitoring and patching regimen, or you risk being the victim of these kinds of attacks.” Wednesday, January 28 is Data Privacy Day, sponsored by the National Cyber Security Alliance.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/628878/?sc=rssn

The hack occurred Tuesday morning with multiple tweets appearing on Swifts Twitter account; the first encouraged herfans to follow user @Veriuser, with a second tweet urging users to go follow my boy @lizzard; of note both accounts have since been suspended. Swift confirmed the hacking on her Tumblr account, saying that My Twitter got hacked but dont worry, Twitter is deleting the hacker tweets and locking my account until they can figure out how this happened and get me new passwords. In a later post to Tumblr she confirmed that her Instagram account was also hacked. Shortly after the attack, the hackers claimed they had obtained nude photographs of Swift and said they would release the photos once they had received3 Bitcoins in donations. Swift denied having nude photos, and replied: PS any hackers saying they have ‘nudes’? Psssh you’d love that wouldn’t you! Have fun photoshopping cause you got NOTHING.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://siliconangle.com/blog/2015/01/27/lizard-squad-hacks-taylor-swift-offers-nudes-for-bitcoin/

Lizard Squad Claims to Take Down Facebook, Instagram (Update: No They Didn’t)

Now, Lizard Squad is claiming to have taken down a large handful of sitesalbeit briefly. Reports suggest that Facebook, Instagram, Tinder, MySapce, AIM and Hipchat at the very least were affected by the alleged attack. All those sites are definitely now back up and running properly, and reports about how long there were down variescertainly less than an hour for Facebook, though. It’s a short, sharp impact but on wide selection of sites. Indeed, if its is the work of Lizard Squad, the ability to take out such a wide range of sites in one go is worrying. We currently have no more details, but will update if we find out more. Update: A Facebook spokesperson has told The Verge that this was “not the result of a third party attack but instead occurred after we introduced a change that affected our configuration systems.” It’s suspected that the Tinder outage may have been triggered by the Facebook outage.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://gizmodo.com/lizard-squad-claims-to-take-down-facebook-instagram-t-1681978666

How Did Snakes Evolve? Fossil Discovery Holds Clues. – Csmonitor.com

Eophis underwoodi, from a quarry in Oxfordshire, England. Photos of the Day Photos of the day 01/27 The location of a fossil can tell us a lot about the animal itself, Caldwell says. For example, the fossil now dubbed Parviraptor estesi was excavated from a limestone formation in Dorset, England. Rich in calcium from snail shells and the skeletal fragments of other marine organisms, this limestone was probably composed of lake sediment. So we can conclude that at least the animal died in a lake, Caldwell says, or at the very least was preserved in one.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/0127/How-did-snakes-evolve-Fossil-discovery-holds-clues

Bart Jansen Wants To Build A Jet-Propelled Badger Submarine – Business Insider

ostrichcopter ostrich bart jansen

One condition goes: they must be operational. Like any other invention these machines are about the automation of processes in order to ease the living of mankind. My devices do exactly that, they automate this certain function. The difference is that the need for these specific functions is questionable. And by doing so, the inventions deliver their fatuous criticism towards the human world. Dennis van Zuijlekom/Flickr (CC) The “OstrichCopter” is shown off at the OHM2013 Festival. Though the timeline for “Das Boot” remains unclear, media attention continues to pour in. A team from the Discovery Channel is coming in February 2015 to make a show about his projects.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.businessinsider.com/badger-submarine-bart-jansen-2015-1

“Alex Murphy and the Golden Ram” Cover Revealed

“I adore the project. I believe deeply in Michelle’s wonderful writing and imagination. I [have] two daughters and am a big believer in providing good strong, brave images of females. The book is full of wonderful creatures and if it can make a good positive difference for actual living creatures through its non-profit element I am proud to be a part of it,” said Marshall, mother of Megan and Emma Lawrence. Emma Lawrence provided the inspiration for Alex on the cover. The ram in question was Aries, the first sign of the zodiac and the ram in Greek mythology who flew over Black Sea to save two children from the wrath of an evil stepmother. He was given his ability to fly by the nymph Nephele, but it was Marshall who gave him his wings. Traditionally, in astrology, he was depicted without them until he became the star of “The Golden Ram.” The book is the first in the brand-new, twelve-part zodiac-inspired series, “The Zodiacicals.” The series follows the story of Alex Murphy, an extraordinarily, ordinary girl, who finds herself on a magical journey to find the twelve zodiac signs before dark forces destroy the world. Marshall and Cerone went back and forth for about a month trying to figure out how best to depict Aries, with his sometimes dignified but mostly playful personality.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/01/prweb12468412.htm

How Did Snakes Evolve? Fossil Discovery Holds Clues. – Csmonitor.com

[The fossils] all show those snake features, so it indicates that the animals were likely eating and behaving the way snakes do today, Caldwell says. The discovery of much older fossils suggests that the origin of snakes came earlier than previously thought. In the mid-Jurassic, reptiles experienced a boom of adaptive radiation the rapid diversification of organisms into new forms. It occurs when new environments become accessible, thereby presenting new environmental challenges and opportunities to specialize. When the supercontinent Pangea broke up into separate land masses, it allowed the squamates a reptilian order that includes all lizards and snakes to diversify.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/0127/How-did-snakes-evolve-Fossil-discovery-holds-clues

Malaysia Airlines Hit By Lizard Squad Hack Attack – Abc News

‘Lizard Squad’ Resurfaces – Hacks And Defaces Malaysia Airlines Website

“Malaysia Airlines confirms that its Domain Name System (DNS) has been compromised where users are re-directed to a hacker website when www.malaysiaairlines.com URL is keyed in,” a statement today from the airline said. “At this stage, Malaysia Airlines’ web servers are intact. The airline has resolved the issue with its service provider and the system is expected to be fully recovered within 22 hours.” “Making claims of data theft is serious and should be taken seriously,” Robert Siciliano, an online safety expert to Intel Security, told ABC News. “Those who have information stored on the site, such as personal information and credit card numbers should take heed and take steps to ensure their accounts are secure. Monitor statements looking for unauthorized activity.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/malaysia-airlines-hit-lizard-squad-hack-attack/story?id=28489244

Reports from other regions indicated the hijacked and replaced page even contained the wording ISIS will prevail. This was apparently in response to the digital war proclaimed by another hacktivist group, who goes by the name Anonymous, against the Lizard Squad. The Lizard Squad had been dormant only for a short amount of time. However, during their peak hour, Lizard Squad was attributed to crippling the Sony PlayStation Network and Microsofts Xbox Live network last month. Lizard Squad, who has only recently proclaimed their strong allegiance with the terrorist outfit, even took down Twitter . Ironically, ISIS/ISIL or the Islamic State Caliphate has been extensively using social media for majority of their purposes.
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.inquisitr.com/1789493/lizard-squad-resurfaces-hacks-and-defaces-malaysia-airlines-website/